TOEIC READING PRACTICE

Part 5: INCOMPLETE SENTENCES

Adverbs of frequency

  • Definite frequency: every day, annually, and twice a week
  • Certain indefinite frequency: frequently, generally, occasionally, often, sometimes, and usually
  • Place to set: Indefinite frequency
    • After the verb be
    • Precede all other verbs
    • Go after the first auxiliary
  • Exception: At the beginning or end of the sentence or clause.
    • Definite frequency
    • Frequently, generally, occasionally, often, sometimes, and usuallye

Conjunction

  • Coordinate conjunctions: and, or, nor, but,,,
  • Subordinate conjunctions: although, since, because, when, before,,,

Prepositions

  • At: a specific time
  • On: a specific day
  • In: a specific city
  • On: a specific date

Transition Words: A; (transition words) B

  • Accordingly: それゆえに、したがって(therefore)
  • Furthermore: おまけに、その上に(besides)、さらに
  • Nevertheless: それにもかかわらず、それでも、やはり(however)
  • Besides: その上、さらに(also)
  • However: しかしながら、けれども、それにもかかわらず
  • For example: たとえば
  • Consequently: その結果、したがって、必然的に
  • Moreover: その上、さらに、加えて(Further, besides)
  • Meanwhile: そのあいだに
  • Then: それゆえ、したがって、
  • As a result: 結果として
  • On the whole: 一般敵に
  • Hence: それゆえに、したがって (so, therefore, consequently)
  • To this end: その目的で
  • For this purpose: その目的で
  • So: それゆえに、したがって、その結果
  • Therefore: それゆえに、したがって、その結果
  • In addition:

Verbs: Causative: get, make and have & order, cause, force, and want

  • [make, have, and let] + object + simple (base) form of a verb
  • [get, want, order, cause] + object + to + simple (base) form of a verb

Verbs: Conditional

  • Real condition
    • Past: If they were waitiging for a counteroffer, they were wise.
    • Present: (Normal)
    • Future: If taxes [go up], we will need to borrow money. (First conditiaonal: Possibility - 可能性)
  • Unreal condition
    • Past: His choice would have been excellent if he had listened to our advice. (Third conditional たられば)
    • Present: If elephants had wings, they could fly. (Second conditional: 想像上のシチュエーション)
    • Future: xxxx

Verbs: Tense

  • Certain time markers: now, tomorrow, since
  • Verb in the main clause
  • Stative verbs (seem, become, know, understand, be, etc.) can not be used in continuous.

Verbs: Two-word: An example - turn down

  • Turn: Rotate
  • Down: From a higher to lower position
  • Turn down: reject or to lower

Word families

  • Noun suffixes: -ance, -ancy, -ence, -ency, -ation, -dom, -ism, -ment, -ness, -ship, -or, -ion
  • Adjective suffixes: -able, -ible, -al, -ful, -ish, -ive.
  • Adverb suffixes: -ly, -word, -wise
  • Verb fuffixes: -en, -ify, -ize

PART 6: TEXT COMPLETION

PART 7: READING COMPREHENSION